Miqat (Arabic: ميقات) literally translates to “a stated place or time”. It signifies the boundary for pilgrimage at the outskirts of Makkah, and as a pilgrim, it is the last point where you can complete your “ihram” before entering the city and beginning the “pilgrimage rites”
Diagram depicting the boundaries:
عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، – رضى الله عنهما – أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” يُهِلُّ أَهْلُ الْمَدِينَةِ مِنْ ذِي الْحُلَيْفَةِ وَأَهْلُ الشَّامِ مِنَ الْجُحْفَةِ وَأَهْلُ نَجْدٍ مِنْ قَرْنٍ ” . قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَبَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ” وَيُهِلُّ أَهْلُ الْيَمَنِ مِنْ يَلَمْلَمَ
Hadhrat Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) reported that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
“The people of Medina should enter upon the state of Ihram at Dhu’l-Hulaifa, and people of Syria at Juhfa, and people of Najd at Qarn (al-Manazil), and (Hadhrat ‘Abdullah Ibn Umar Radhiyallahu Anhu (further) said: It has reached me that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) also said: The people of Yemen should enter upon the state of Ihram at Yalamlam.”(Sahih Muslim)”
From this Hadith we find there are four boundaries found:
- Dhul-Hulaifa (for the people of Medina)
- al-Juhfa (for the people of Sham)
- Qarn (for the people of Najd)
- Yalamlam (for the people of Yemen)
However in our diagram we find five areas (circled in red)
Thus we look at this Hadith of Bukhari
عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ لَمَّا فُتِحَ هَذَانِ الْمِصْرَانِ أَتَوْا عُمَرَ فَقَالُوا يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ، إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم حَدَّ لأَهْلِ نَجْدٍ قَرْنًا، وَهُوَ جَوْرٌ عَنْ طَرِيقِنَا، وَإِنَّا إِنْ أَرَدْنَا قَرْنًا شَقَّ عَلَيْنَا. قَالَ فَانْظُرُوا حَذْوَهَا مِنْ طَرِيقِكُمْ. فَحَدَّ لَهُمْ ذَاتَ عِرْقٍ.
Abdullah Ibn Umar رضي الله عنه said, “When these two towns (Basra and Kufa) were captured, the people went to `Umar and said, “O the Chief of the faithful believers! The Prophet (ﷺ) fixed Qarn as the Miqat for the people of Najd, it is beyond our way and it is difficult for us to pass through it.” He said, “Take as your Miqat a place situated opposite to Qarn on your usual way. So, he fixed Dhatu-Irq (as their Miqat).”
Thus we find the 5th boundary area is:
Lets give a detailed picture of each inshaa Allah
1. Dhul Hulayfah (also known as Abyar Ali)
Dhul Hulayfah is located 18 kilometres southwest of Masjid al-Nabawi ﷺ in Madinah and is 410 kilometres (255 miles) north of Makkah. This is the Miqat for the people of Madinah and the people (outside of Madinah) intending to perform Hajj by passing beyond this point coming from the North.
2. Al-Juhfah (also known as Rabigh)
Al-Juhfah is located 182 kilometres (113 miles) northwest of Makkah. This is the Miqat for people intending to perform Hajj travelling from North America, Europe, Turkey, Syria, Egypt, Algeria, Sudan and several other African countries. Pilgrims may also enter into Ihram at Rabigh, a town just to the north of al-Juhfa
3. Qarn al-Manazil (also known as al-Sayl)
Qarn al-Manazil is located 80 kilometres (50 miles) east of Makkah. This is the Miqat for the people of Najd and for those travelling from countries such as the U.A.E, Oman, Pakistan, Australia, Malaysia, Singapore etc. It is situated near the city of Ta’if.
4. Dhat Irq
Dhat Irq is located 90 kilometres (56 miles) northeast of Makkah. This is the Miqat for people intending to perform Hajj travelling from Iraq, Iran, China, Russia etc.
5. Yalamlam (also known as al-Sadiah)
Yalamlam is located 100 kilometres (62 miles) south of Makkah. This is the Miqat for the people of Yemen and those coming from the south. Pilgrims travelling from countries such as South Africa, Nigeria etc. will cross this Miqat.
The Hil (Arabic: الحل) refers to the area between the boundaries of the Miqats and the boundaries of the Haram. Towns and cities such as Jeddah, Khulais, al-Janun and Taneem are all situated within the Hil area.
Pilgrims residing in or travelling through the Hil must enter into a state of Ihram before crossing the boundary of the Haram
The Haram is the sacred boundary of Makkah within which certain acts are considered unlawful which may be lawful elsewhere. It is prohibited to hunt wild animals, damage plants or trees, graze animals, carry weapons, fight or behave in a manner that will violate the sanctity of Masjid al-Haram. If a violation is carried out within the precinct of the Haram, Damm or Sadaqah is required as expiation.
The boundaries of the Haram are as follows:
- Taneem – Masjid Aisha, also known as Masjid Taneem, located about 8 km (5 miles) from the Kaaba and 5 km (3 miles) away from Makkah, in the direction of Madinah.
- Adaat Laban – On the road to Yemen, 11 km (7 miles) away from Makkah
- Wadi Nakhla – On the road to Iraq, 11 km (7 miles) away from Makkah.
- Arafat – On the road to Ta’if, close to Masjid al-Namirah in Arafat, 11 km (7 miles) away from Makkah.
- Ji’ranah – Masjid al-Ji’ranah, located about 14 km (9 miles) away from Makkah.
- Hudaibiyah – Masjid al-Hudaibiyah, on the road to Jeddah, about 16 km (10 miles) away from Makkah.
If a pilgrim intends to perform an additional Umrah, Ihram must be assumed outside the boundary of the Haram before reentering Makkah to carry out the rites of Umrah. Many pilgrims choose to enter into the state of Ihram at Masjid Aisha which is the nearest and most convenient location from Masjid al-Haram. Transportation to get to this location is available near the mosque.